Bromine

Formula Br2
Structure
Description Dark reddish-brown, fuming liquid with suffocating, irritating fumes, lachrymator.
Uses In water disinfection, bleaching fibers and silk, Manufacture medicinal bromine compds, dyestuffs.

Registry Numbers and Inventories.
CAS 7726-95-6
EC (EINECS/ELINCS) 231-778-1
EC Index Number 035-001-00-5
EC Class Very toxic; Corrosive; Dangerous for the Environment
EC Risk Phrase R 26 35 50
EC Safety Phrase S 7/9 26 45 61
RTECS EF9100000
RTECS class Human Data
UN (DOT) 1744
Merck 13,1378
Beilstein/Gmelin 1182 (G)
EPA OPP 8701
Swiss Giftliste 1 G-2164
Canada DSL/NDSL DSL
US TSCA Listed
Austrailia AICS Listed
New Zealand Listed
Korea ECL Listed

Odor Threshold Odor threshold 0.05-3.5 ppm
Properties.
Formula Br2
Formula mass 159.82
Melting point, C -7.2
Boiling point, C 58.7
Vapor pressure, mmHg 190 (25 C)
Vapor density (air=1) 5.5
Saturation Concentration 23% (230,000 ppm) at 20 C (calculated)
Critical temperature 315
Critical pressure 102
Density 3.121 g/cm3 (25 C)
Solubility in water Insoluble
Viscosity 0.314 sq mm/s
Surface tension 40.9 g/s2 @ 25 C
Thermal expansion 0.00103819/K
Heat of fusion 120.1 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 30.0 kJ/mol

Hazards and Protection.
Storage Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Do not store near combustible materials. Do not store in direct sunlight. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Corrosives area. Keep away from reducing agents. Loosen closure cautiously before opening.
Handling Wash thoroughly after handling. Use only in a well ventilated area. Do not breathe dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Keep container tightly closed. Avoid contact with clothing and other combustible materials. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Discard contaminated shoes.
Protection Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA's eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166. Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure. Clothing: Wear a chemical apron. Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Always use a NIOSH or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator when necessary.
Small spills/leaks Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches which lead to waterways. Clean up spills immediately, using the appropriate protective equipment. Use water spray to disperse the gas/vapor. Remove all sources of ignition. Absorb spill with an alkaline material such as soda ash or lime. Carefully scoop up and place into appropriate disposal container. Provide ventilation. Do not get water inside containers.
Stability Stable under normal shipping and handling conditions.
Incompatibilities Reducing agents.
Decomposition Irritating and toxic fumes and gases, hydrogen bromide.

Fire.
Flash Point,C -18
Fire fighting Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Strong oxidizer. Contact with combustible materials may cause a fire. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Use water with caution and in flooding amounts. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire. Will react with water to form toxic and corrosive fumes. Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Extinguishing media: Do NOT get water inside containers. For small fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or water spray. For large fires, use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, alcohol-resistant foam, or water spray. Contact professional fire-fighters immediately.
Fire potential Nonflammable. Strongly oxidizing. Heat of reaction may cause ignition of combustible materials.
Hazards Will cause ignition of organic materials spontaneous ignition possible when combined with potassium, phosphorus and tin and a wide variety of other chemicals. It reacts explosively with acetylene, acrylonitrile, ammonia, dimethyl formamide, ethyl phosphine, hydrogen, isobutyrophenone, nickel carbonyl, nitrogen triiodide, ozone, oxygen difluoride, phosphorus, potassium, silver azide, sodium and sodium carbide. When heated it emits highly toxic fumes and will react with water or steam to product toxic and corrosive fumes. Bromine is incompatible with a wide variety of materials including alkali hydroxides; arsenites; ferrous, mercurous salts; hypophosphites and other oxidizable substances. Vaporizes rapidly at room temperature.
Combustion products Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases.
NFPA Health 3
  Flammability 0  
  Reactivity 0  
  Special O

Health.
Exposure limit(s) OSHA PEL: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: TWA 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/m3) ST 0.3 ppm (2 mg/m3) NIOSH IDLH: 3 ppm
Poison_Class 2
Exposure effects Effects may be delayed.
   Ingestion May cause severe and permanent damage to the digestive tract. Causes gastrointestinal tract burns. May cause perforation of the digestive tract. May cause systemic effects. May cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, possibly with blood.
   Inhalation Irritation may lead to chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns, breathing difficulty, and possible coma. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. May cause systemic effects. May cause acute pulmonary edema, asphyxia, chemical pneumonitis, and upper airway obstruction caused by edema.
   Skin Contact with liquid is corrosive and causes severe burns and ulceration. May cause skin rash (in milder cases), and cold and clammy skin with cyanosis or pale color.
   Eyes Causes eye burns. May cause permanent corneal opacification. May cause chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage.

First aid
 
   Ingestion Do NOT induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical aid immediately.
   Inhalation Get medical aid immediately. Remove from exposure to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. DO NOT use mouth-to-mouth respiration. If breathing has ceased apply artificial respiration using oxygen and a suitable mechanical device such as a bag and a mask.
   Skin Get medical aid immediately. Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Destroy contaminated shoes.
   Eyes Get medical aid immediately. Do NOT allow victim to rub or keep eyes closed. Extensive irrigation is required (at least 30 minutes).

Transport.
UN number 1744
Response guide 154
Hazard class 8
PRTC T
Packing Group I  
USCG CHRIS Code BRX  
HS Code 2801 30 90  
Std. Transport # 4936110